In the last five years, we have witnessed the unprecedented transformation of DNA sequencing technology. As one of the key technologies in biomedical research, DNA sequencing technologies have undergone a steady metamorphosis from cottage industry to a large scale, robust technology which fundamentally changes the nature of genetics experiments. The emergence of next generation sequencing has transformed today's biology and posed prospective insights to DNA. Coupled with the development of high performance computing and bioinformatics, next generation sequencing has not only improved on productivity in a massively parallel way, at the same time it also offers ever faster cheaper ways to analyse nucleotides sequences. The next generation sequencing technology and application have reduced the cost of sequencing and substantial increase in throughput and accuracy.
The application of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)
In the short four years next generation sequencing has markedly multiple areas of genomics research enabling experiments that were not feasible or affordable technically. The high throughput capacity and performance has been leveraged to sequence entire genomes, from microbes to human. Next generation sequencing with its robust technology serve as an important baseline to discover complex disease in organism such as mutation discovery,sequencing clinical isolates in strain to reference comparison, metagenomics characterization, regulatory protein binding, non-coding RNA and DNA protein interaction discovery. By far, the most common use of next generation sequencing platform has been whole genome or targeted resequencing. Sequencing of genomics sub-region and gene sets is being used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms, indels, copy number and structural variations in genome level comprative analysis. It is widely applied in disease associated region-oncology, immunogenetics research, as well as infectious disease research. It also enhances the ability to interpret genome in the context of observed human phenotypes. On the other hand, de nove sequencing generates the primary genetic sequence of a particular organism. A detailed genetic analysis of any organism is possible only after de novo sequencing has been performed.
With the availability of the faster and cheaper next generation sequencing platforms, more sequencing in the transcriptome level are performed using the developed deep sequencing approach, NGS RNA Seq. Transcriptome sequencing reveals the molecular constituents of cells and tissues as well as understanding the development of the disease. Moreover, it targets to catalog all the transcripts including mRNAs, non-coding RNAs and small RNAs in the context of cell types for a species. It also serves as a quantification technique to quantify the expression levels of each transcript during development or under different physiologic and pathological conditions.
Metagenomics is a powerful field which essentially study the microbial diversity in enviroment which entails brute force sequencing of DNA fragments obtained from an uncultured, unpurified microbial populations followed by comprehensive bioinformatics-based analyses. The research applications of metagenomics with next generation sequencing is to analyze relative abundance of microbial species under varying enviromental condition besides discovering new genes, make prediction on uncultural species.
"We are pleased with the services and results provided by AITbiotech. Their team is knowledgeable and responsive to our needs and queries. We have had experience with other suppliers of NGS services and we find that AITbiotech provides more efficient and reliable services, with more stringent QC that ensures higher quality NGS reads. Working with AITbiotech has the additional advantage that it is not an agent for another company located elsewhere. Instead the data are generated by AITbiotech personnel in Singapore which helps with communicating with the NGS lab and avoids the hidden costs and bureaucratic hurdles that come with international shipping of samples. These positive experiences mean that we will continue to work with AITbiotech for all our next-generation sequencing needs." Professor Rudolf Meier, Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore
"I am an animal physiologist and a Professorin the Department of Biological Sciences in the National University of Singapore. My students and I have engaged AITbiotech's NGS service to investigate the up- and down-regulation of gene expression in several fish species in response to various environmental conditions using the Illumina platform. We have also requested AITbiotech to provide us with the bioinformatics service required for de novo assembly and the generation of differential libraries using Illumina reads. In addition, AITbiotech has helped us examine nucleotide substitutions in the cDNA sequence of a specific gene using the Ion Torrent platform with the necessary bioinformatics support. So far, I have very good experience with AITbiotech's NGS service. The AITbiotech NGS application and products specialist very knowledgeable and can provide useful suggestions/advices where applicable and when needed. The NGS, in particular Ion Torrent, running time is short and reasonable. To cater for meaningful bioinformatics analysis, the AITbiotech bioinformatic specialist works closely with the customer to resolve technical issues/problems. The NGS data obtained through AITbiotech's service have effectively speed up the research progress in my laboratory, and provided my student with the opportunity to discover novel genes and/or gene functions." Professor Alex Y.K. Ip, Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore